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an illustration of a wallet

Wallet Account eXperiments

Helping wallets, dapps, and SDKs shine.


Using cryptographic primitives in smart accounts can be as hard as finding them in the first place. Research and development of such primitives is even harder. WAX integrates components developed by PSE for use in a 4337 smart account. The goal is to empower wallets, dapps and SDKs more readily, and thus improve the experience of Ethereum account-holders.

For example, cheaper layer-2 transactions are unlocked via use of proven signature schemes (BLS) combined with calldata compression strategies. Or better and safer UX with choices in verification methods using zero-knowledge proofs (coming soon). These advantages can be brought into more products without each entity doing their own R&D.

New smart account capabilities...

  • Lower fees with calldata compression
    • Additionally BLS sig aggregation for L2s
  • Passkey validation
    • Uses WebAuthn standard
  • Recovery of a validation mechaism via hidden guardian(s)
  • Multiple actions in a single UserOperation
  • Email validation of UserOps via ZK Email primitive (aspirational)

How WAX works

With the advent of the ERC4337 Account Abstraction standard, and development of novel zk verification methods from PSE groups, WAX seeks to integrate and showcase novel examples. Integration of verification primitives is done in a modular way, initially using SAFE modules and plugin design, but we will keep an eye on how AA modular standards like ERC6900 settle.

These Wallet Account eXperiments are WAX.

At a higher level these components are brought together in an easy-to-use library, making it easier for others to understand and integrate.

Meet the team

Headshot of WAX team member, Jake C-T
Jake C-TProject Lead
Headshot of WAX team member, John Guilding
John GuildingSoftware Developer
Headshot of WAX team member, Andrew Morris
Andrew MorrisSoftware Developer

Wallet Account eXperiments (WAX) is part of Privacy & Scaling Explorations (PSE), a multidisciplinary team supported by the Ethereum Foundation. PSE explores new use cases for zero knowledge proofs and other cryptographic primitives.